"FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF ROCKET AND SPACE ACTIVITY"
Approved by ISEU Council, April 20, 2000
Practical actions within the Program
Appendix 1 Retrospective review of major events related to the problem of environmental safety of rocket and space activity
Appendix 2 Major publications on the problem
1. Program Participants
Program Coordinator - Krichevsky S.V. (Moscow and Moscow region).
Program participants - Cherkasova M.V., Lupandin V.M., Krichevskaya K.S. (Moscow and Moscow region); Kondrashova T.V. (Altai Territory, Barnaul); Mezak E.A. (Komi Republic, Siktivkar), etc.
Participating organizations: Center for Russian Environmental Policy (CREP), Center for Independent Environmental Programs (CIEP) (Moscow), Altai Territory charity foundation "Altai - 21st Century" (Barnaul) and other organizations of the International Socio-Ecological Union (ISEU).
Geographical Scope: 1) Russia (Altai Territory; Republics of Altai, Komi, Yakutia (Sakha); Archangel, Amur, Astrakhan, Novosibirsk, Tyumen, Tomsk regions, and others, in total over 20 subjects of the Russian Federation; 2) Kazakhstan; 3) Ukraine; 4) the USA and other states.
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2. Program Outline
Rocket and space activity (RSA) - is the activity directly related to exploration and practical use of the Earth's atmosphere and outer space. This activity is implemented with the use of rocket and space technology, which comprises ground segment, space assets and technologies within their complete life cycle, including development, production, operation, elimination and utilization.
Apart from playing an important role in technological and socio-economic development as a promising area of the progress of civilization and a means of solution of global problems of the Humankind contemporary RSA is one of the most wasteful, risky and environmentally dangerous areas of human activity.
Because of confrontation of the two antagonistic world systems in the 20th century the policy of the leading space powers was openly ecologically irresponsible.
Despite considerable positive contributions to the progress of the Humankind RSA, both in Russian Federation and in the world as a whole, is accompanied by growing dangers and damage for humans and the natural environment as well as by mass violations of ecological rights of the citizens.
Since mid-fifties of the 20th century (within 40-45 years) intense RSA inflicted considerable damage in the vicinity of space launching sites, rocket ranges as well as in the areas where the fragments of launcher rockets fall on the ground; similar damage has been inflicted to circumterrestrial space. Participants of human spaceflights are subjected to extremely high ecological risk.
Because of rapid development of rocket and space technology, inadequately slow growth of awareness by professionals and the society at large of the dangers rooted in RSA and absence of counteraction to these dangers, environmental threat of RSA turned in the end of the 20th century into a new global problem.
The major causes of environmental threats of RSA are: its military origins; inherited environmental irrationality of rocket and space technology, fuels and engineering methods, which have been developed largely on the "pre-ecological" stages of development of science and technology; high risk of accidents (up to 5% of the total number of launches); secrecy; weak environmental legislation; lack of independent environmental impact assessment; domination of departmental, corporate and monopolistic motives among the participants of RSA; absence of information transparency in the course of oversight of RSA by society.
The gravest consequences of RSA on the territory of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) manifest themselves in the areas of its highest intensity (areas of space launching sites Baikonur, Plesetsk, Kapustin Yar and appropriate areas of falling on the ground of stages of rocket launchers on the territory of Kazakhstan, Archangel region, Altai Territory, Republics of Altai, Tuva, Khakassia, Sakha (Yakutia), etc).
For example, for more than 30 years the territory of Republic of Altai has been used as a place of location of areas where stages of rocket launchers fall on the ground. In violation of ethical and environmental norms and the standing legislation rocket and space monopolies and other organizations of the rocket and space branch of industry under the leadership of Russian Aerospace Agency and the Ministry of Defense pursue barbaric ecocide in the unique region of Russia and the planet Earth - the Altai reserve, which is a center of biodiversity of this region. Irreparable damage to life and health of the population as well as to biosphere of Earth has been inflicted and continues to be inflicted. The territory of Altai is in fact used as a testing ground for ecologically irrational rocket and space technology; it became a dump area of fragments of rocket launchers and of residues of toxic rocket fuel (heptyle, etc). In such situation the developed states (for example, the USA) resort to launching their satellites by means of Russian heptyle-fuelled rocket "Proton" from Baikonur space launching site, thus successfully resolving their environmental problems at the expense of the territories of Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, where, appropriately, fall the first and the second stages of "Proton" launcher rockets with toxic residues of fuel. Russian Aerospace Agency receives from its foreign customers over 50 million dollars per such launch, the State Khrunichev Center (Moscow) - producer of "Proton" rockets gets its share of foreign currency and new orders, the city of Moscow has tax returns, whereas Republic of Altai receives as reimbursement a negligible fraction of the total payment for launches and at the same time has to suffer full share of the environmental consequences and negative impacts. Within the last several years the number of annual launches into space grows rapidly. Such situation in Altai area is intolerable, cardinal measures should be taken to stop this rocket and space limitless abuse of elementary norms and human rights.
Within the coming 10-20 years there is a real threat of irreversible environmental consequences of RSA, primarily for circumterrestrial space and some territories of the surface of the Earth.
Two major aspects of environmental threat of RSA are known:
1) pollution of circumterrestrial outer space, its irreversible dangerous degradation due to changes of its physical and chemical as well as energy properties, disruption of solar-terrestrial connections.
2) pollution of the surface of the Earth and of the near-Earth atmosphere with wastes, generated by RSA.
In the course of such pollution superpowerful peak impacts, salvo eruptions of heat energy as well as pollution of the environment with rocket and spacecraft debris and toxic rocket fuel, both liquid and solid, take place. Such consequences are peculiar not only of the areas of space launching sites and of the areas of falling down of jettisoned elements of the rocket launchers, but also of the territories along the flight trajectories of rocket launchers because of generation of toxic aerosols, as well as of the operations connected with production, transportation, storage and utilization of appropriate elements of rocket fuel.
Since all the elements of life cycle of RSA are environmentally dangerous, environmental threat becomes a problem of a very wide (actually global) scope. Because of this millions of people in Russia and in a number of other states (e.g. Kazakhstan, China, French Guiana, USA, etc.) are deeply interested in solution of this problem.
By the magnitude of negative impact on the health of the population of the Russian Federation RSA may be ranked among the most polluted branches of industrial production.
Military medics are well aware of clinical aspects of poisoning humans with liquid rocket fuel - heptyle, including impacts of low-dose poisoning on human organism. Among other symptoms of such poisoning they point out affection of liver, development of vegetative - blood vessel dystony, dystrophy of myocard, stomach and bowels disorders, anaemia, leucopenia, hypofunction and hyperlasia of thyroid gland. Similar symptoms take place as a result of chronic poisoning with rocket fuel of humans residing in the vicinity of space launching cites, close to flight trajectories of rocket launchers and to the areas of falling down of jettisoned elements of rocket launchers. Ever more serious consequences are caused by heavy poisoning with rocket fuel. Heptyle poisoning causes especially grave sufferings to children, it is extremely dangerous for human foetus.
However, until present the military deny evident causal connections of disease of the population in the areas of RSA with effects of toxic components of rocket fuel and demand to prove in course of expert investigations presence of traces of rocket fuel in human organism. Due to some reasons such demand is unrealistic, and, what is especially important, such demand is not adequate for cases of low-dose poisoning. Because of use of different kinds of fuel in rocket launchers of different design, as well as because of combined effects of various toxic agents, which are transformable, drawing an adequate picture of disease of population in areas of RSA becomes a complicated problem. For example, it has been proved that burning of solid rocked fuel produces superecotoxic agents - dioxins, which are qualified as persistent organic pollutants (POP). We face a most complicated problem of health protection of population in the areas of RSA, which requires serious expert investigations with obligatory participation of representatives of wide public.
On the threshold between the 20th and the 21st century takes place a transition to cardinal commercialization of space activity accompanied by large-scale international cooperation. Expansion of RSA and beginning of space industrialization, however, are far ahead of the development and implementation of measures aimed at ensuring ecological safety.
In conditions of low environmental and legal culture in Russian Federation rocket and space monopolies, states, groups of people and associations immediately interested in RSA, guided by their pragmatic interests, qualify actual and potential dangers of RSA as not urgent, conceal from wide public and professionals trustworthy and comprehensive environmental information.
In Russia as well as in the world there are no independent organizations and mass media which are engaged in professional investigation of the problems of environmental danger and safety of RSA, of its negative consequences. There is a radical lag in realization and solution of the problem of human rights in the framework of ecological threats of RSA. Public oversight of this sphere of activity is extremely weak. Appropriate projects and programs are implemented without social and environmental expert impact assessment. Aerospace agencies, rocket and space transnational corporations (TNC) initiate a new round of rocket and space race using for the purpose commercialization and powerful lobbying among political circles.
Rocket and space projects, primarily manned space projects, are extremely expensive: the cost of the project of the International Space Station, implementation of which have been started, is estimated in 100 billion doll., the project of manned expedition to Mars will cost around 500-1000 billion doll.
Thus, the problem of social and environmental oversight for RSA is urgent and highly important. Many local groups affiliated to the Socio-Ecological Union (SEU) (only in Russian Federation they operate in more than 20 subjects of federation affected by negative impacts of RSA; similar groups operate in Kasakhstan) are interested in solution of this problem. However, their activities are dispersed, their efforts are not properly coordinated, and such activity is far from being efficient.
The emerging situation requires establishment of efficient oversight of RSA by society, which makes necessary coordination of efforts of local groups of SEU operating in Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and other countries. SEU has at its disposal the necessary resources.
Actually, practical measures to implement this Program have been taken in the framework of SEU since long time ago. The Program has been initiated in 1992 in CIEP when doctor of medicine V.M. Lupandin undertook first investigations of the problem of so-called yellow children in Altai Territory and linked their birth with consequences of RSA. Since then V.M. Lupandin has made his investigations in Republics of Altai and Komi, in Archangel, Astrakhan, Vladimir, Ivanovo and other regions of Russian Federation, and in Kazakhstan. He published in mass media dozens of articles on the problem of impact of RSA on human health. It is important to make note of the fact that everywhere he enjoyed support of wide public, including the support of the organizations affiliated to SEU.
Very active in its efforts to resolve the problem is Altai branch of SEU headed by M.Yu. Shishin (Barnaul). He organized several conferences and expeditions, radio and TV broadcasts (TV and radio company "Katun").
In 1997 under aegis of the Center for Russian Environmental Policy a research project on the subject "Environmental threats of space activity: analytical review" has been implemented (authors of the project: professor, doctor of physics and mathematics M.N. Vlasov; senior researcher, candidate of technology S.V. Krichevsky).
In February 1998 founding assembly of Inter-regional popular movement "For Environmental Safety of Rocket and Space Activity" was held. Among its participants were representatives of Moscow, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and Tomsk region.
On May 26, 1998 a working meeting on the subject "Socio-ecological problems of rocket and space activity" was held in A.D. Sakharov Public center by initiative of CIEP.
In June 1998 at the Scientific conference "Altai-Space-Microspace" special session "Space activity: social and environmental aspects" was organized. The conference adopted and published a Resolution "Environmental threat of contemporary space activity", which entrusted CIED with coordination of activities related to the problem, S.V. Krichevsky was appointed coordinator of these activities. The economic crisis in Russian Federation, however, was the reason of lack of visible results in this area. Theses of reports at the Conference were published in April 1999.
On March 23, 1999 a press-conference on the problem of environmental safety of RSA with presentation of the book by M.N. Vlasov and S.V. Krichevsky was held in Russian-American Press Center (it was organized by CREP and SEU). The book has been circulated among the subjects of Russian Federation affected by impacts of RSA as well as among appropriate federal ministries and agencies, environmental organizations and libraries of Russian Federation and some other countries.
Within several last years a number of events on the problem has been organized on the federal level and appropriate documents had been adopted. For retrospective list of these events and documents see Appendix 1.
Since mid-1980s hundreds of publications on this problem appeared in scientific magazines and general mass media (for the most comprehensive list of such publications see monograph: Vlasov M.N., Krichevsky S.V. "Environmental threats of space activity: analytical review" - Moscow, "Nauka" Publishers, Center for Russian Environmental Policy, 1999). Absolute "champion" by the number of publications in Russian mass media is Lupandin V.M. He authors over 20 articles on the problem, which were published in "Trud" newspaper. For these publications Lupandin V.M. was awarded First degree Diploma at the Second All-Russian Competition of journalists "Ecology of Russia-97".
For list of major publications on the problem see Appendix 2.
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3. Program Goal
Reduction of environmental threats of RSA for humans, society and nature.
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4. Program Missions
4.1. Coordination of efforts of organizations and individual citizens, concerned with resolution of the problems of environmental safety of RSA.
4.2. Enforcement of rights of the citizens for trustworthy information about RSA.
4.3. Contributing to growing awareness of wide public, of representatives of executive and legislative bodies as well as of professionals and other sectors of socially of the problem of environmental safety of RSA.
4.4. Protection of human rights, primarily rights for life and health, of the people who suffered from RSA.
4.5. Development of basic principles of national and international policy related to RSA.
4.6. Positive interaction with official bodies, federal agencies of Russian Federation and other states as well as with international organizations; cooperation with rocket and space corporations and other enterprises engaged in RSA with the aim of open discussion and solution of the problems with participation of independent experts and wide public.
4.7. Organization of public oversight and establishment of environmental limitations for RSA and human expansion into outer space by social and ecological criteria.
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5. Practical actions within the Program
5.1. Present activities within the Program.
5.1.1. Main body of the working group has been established, which will be enlarged by incorporation into it of representatives of local groups from the regions.
5.1.2. Program participants make individual trips into regions.
For the period of field operations in 2000 activities in Archangel district and Republic of Altai have been planned. Documents on specifics of medical and environmental impact assessments of population affected by low-dozes of rocket fuel are being prepared for publication.
5.1.3. Appropriate strategy is being developed, Program of SEU is being finalized, sources of investments are being searched for.
5.1.4. Regular publication of information on the problem has been started, further publications an being planned under the aegis of ISEU and other NGOs in federal and regional mass media. Establishment of appropriate cite in Internet is also being planned. Articles by V.M. Lupandin continue to be published by "Trud" newspaper. Article by S.V. Krichevsky on the problem of falling down of stages of rocket launchers on over one third of the area of Alrai reserve initiated a series of publications on the problem in "Parlamentskaya Gaseta" (February 2000).
5.1.5. A collection of articles on the Program has been prepared for publication (Editor in-chief M.V. Cherkasova). The collection of documents will be published for the Congress of SEU, which will take place in Kiev in August 2000. Special session on the problem is being planned to be held during the Congress. The collection of articles will be disseminated among other NGOs, among the representatives of executive and legislative bodies of different scale as well as other organizations and individuals concerned.
5.2. Actions within the Program in the next 2-3 years:
5.2.1. Establishment of the network "For environmental safety of RSV".
It is envisaged to incorporate into the network the NGOs, primarily those affiliated to ISEU and already engaged in practical work on the problem, as well as independent specialists from different areas, who are interested in the problem. Contacts among the members of the network will be maintained by E-mail, via Internet, by conventional mail as well as by direct communication during seminars, conferences, in the course of field expeditions, etc. Such work has already been started: numerous meetings and consultations had been held; a list of organizations and individuals, which are most interested in the problem, has been compiled.
5.2.2. Regular information of wide public on real and potential threat of RSA, on the scale and urgency of the problem.
5.2.3. Organization of workshop on the subject: "Environmental law and environmental policy related to RSA".
5.2.4. Continuation of medical and environmental research in different regions of Russia, elaboration of methods of medical and environmental assessments of population affected by RSA, implementation of such assessments.
5.2.5. Analysis of available legal documents regulating RSA on national and international levels, development of proposals on their improvement in the framework of environmental safety.
5.2.6. Development of basic principles of national and international policy related to RSA.
5.2.7. Development and implementation of mechanisms designed for restraining dangerous consequences of RSA. It is intended to bring lawsuits against the violations of environmental legislation and cases of inflicting environmental damage to Altai reserve as well as to population and environment of Altai Republic as a result of using its territory as an area of falling down jettisoned elements of launcher rockets.
5.2.8. Establishment of international non-governmental organization (Center) on the problem within the infrastructure of ISEU.
5.3. Long-term practical actions within the Program:
5.3.1. Analysis, development and improvement of appropriate national and international legislative documents (related to environmental and space law).
5.3.2. Development of basic principles of national and international policy related to RSA.
5.3.3. Complex analysis of socio-ecological, economic and other aspects of RSA in the framework of the principles of sustainable development, priorities of survival and progress of Russia and the Humankind.
5.3.4. Implementation of medical and socio-ecological monitoring of the territories affected by RSA.
5.3.5. Organization and implementation of federal and public environmental impact assessment of Russian and international programs and projects related to space activity: Federal space program of Russian Federation; "Proton" rocket launcher, "Iridium", International Space Station, "Sea Launch" and other projects (thus establishing precedents and providing operation of appropriate mechanisms).
5.3.6. Development and implementation of mechanisms designed for restraining dangerous consequences of RSA. Development and implementation of mechanisms designed for restraining dangerous consequences of RSA:
220.127.116.11. establishing quotas for annual number of launches of rockets with due account of their impact on biosphere and circumterrestrial space;
18.104.22.168. bringing lawsuits against the cases of inflicting environmental damage to population and environment of Altai Republic and other regions of Russian Federation, other states, regions of the planet as well as to circumterrestrial space in the course of RSA;
22.214.171.124. obligatory insurance of environmental risks related to RSA;
126.96.36.199. development and stage by stage implementation of international regimes of limitation followed by moratorium and complete ban on use of rocket fuels-superoxidants;
188.8.131.52. establishment of regime of limitations on use of deactivated military missiles and their components for launch of payloads into space.
5.3.7. Raising environmental awareness of leaders and professionals of rocket and space branch of economy, responsible for development and implementation of appropriate educational programs.
5.3.8. Argumentation of the necessity of establishment in the United Nations of Working group on the problems of environmental safety.
5.3.9. Regular publication of reviews of environmental aspects of RSA.
5.3.10. Establishment of appropriate Russian and international associations and other organizations as well as of mass media, whose activity would contribute to implementation of the goal of environmental optimization of RSA; protection of interests and rights of people by means of cooperation with federal agencies and organizations of space branch of economy and positive criticism of the current and perspective RSA.
5.3.11. Interaction with influential international, Russian and other governmental agencies, leading corporations of space branch of economy, authoritative Russian and international non-governmental scientific, environmental and other organizations for the purpose of limitation and reducing risks and damage to people and environment of Russian Federation and to biosphere of Earth.
5.3.12. Adequate information of wide public on socio-environmental situation related to RSA, appeals to Russian and world public opinion for support of demands to limit and ban the use of environmentally irrational rocket and space technology and technological procedures as well as to cease unrestrained and wasteful space expansion, barbaric impact on biosphere of the Earth and circumterrestrial space -common heritage of the Humankind.
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At present the Program is not supported by financial resources. All the activities are undertaken without material reward. Potential sources of financial resources: grants, work by contracts, money provided by sponsors.
Minimum financial resources required for implementation of the initial stage of the Program - 12000-15000 U.S. doll. per year.
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Sergei Krichevsky & Maria Cherkasova
March 28, 2000, Moscow
Krichevsky Sergei Vladimirovich -
(095) 9522423 (tel.), 9523007(tel. / fax) - (CEPR); 1247934 (ISEU),
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RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF MAJOR EVENTS RELATED TO THE PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF ROCKET AND SPACE ACTIVITY
In 1992-1993 the first law of Russian Federation "On space activity had been elaborated, adopted and enacted. (S.V. Krichevsky was a member of a Working group of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation, he is one of the co-authors of Draft Law, among other things he initiated and developed the principles, articles and points related to safety of space activity and environmental protection).
In 1993-1994 Interagency commission of the Security Council of Russian Federation examined this problem, a Working group had been established. Report of the Working group was published in 1994. Draft federal program "Ecos-RF" had been elaborated. The program was elaborated by appropriate agencies from technocratic rocket and space, and not from environmental perspective. (The program has been improved and amended several times. Until now the program has not been approved, neither is it financed and implemented.)
In 1995 round table discussion "Elimination of offensive strategic arms and environmental security of Russia" has been held in the Committee of the Council of Federation on International Relations. Among the participants of the round table discussion from NGOs were V.M. Lupandin, L.A. Fedorov, M.V. Cherkasova.
In 1995 Parliamentary hearings on the problem of pollution of circumterrestrial space had been held in the State Duma.
In autumn 1998 a "Temporary commission of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of Russian Federation on protection of the interests of the subjects of Russian Federation, legal persons and citizens form adverse consequences of rocket and space activity" had been established. Representatives of 19 subjects of federation were nominated as members of the Temporary commission; Tabaev D.I., Republic of Altai, was elected chairman of the Temporary commission. In the end of 1999 the chairman of the Temporary commission made a report on the results of its work (6 typewritten pages).
In 1998-1999 draft law "On safely of space activity" had been elaborated in the State Duma of Russian Federation (Committee on geopolitics) However, the environmental aspects are not adequately reflected in this draft law. The draft law is being prepared for submission to State Duma.
The problems of environmental safety of RSA had been discussed at the 2nd All-Russian congress on protection of the environment (Saratov, June 1999). At the legal section of the Ñongress, among others, there was a report devoted to analysis of environmental and legal aspects of RSA (author - S.V. Krichevsky).
On the 21st of October, 1999 the Committee on the Environment of the State Duma held Parliamentary hearings on the practical problems of implementation of the Federal law "On environmental impact assessment" (1995). Unsatisfactory situation with environmental impact assessment of RSA was pointed out in the speeches at the hearings of representatives of some NGOs (I.Blockov, "Greenpeace of Russia"; S.Krichevsky, CEPR; M.Khutuleva, SEU).
In the end of 1999 CEPR addressed the State Committee on the Environment of Russian Federation on the problem of obligatory federal impact assessment of the dangerous project of deorbiting and elimination of space station "Mir". The issue of implementation of such environmental impact assessment remains unresolved.
The problem of dangerous environmental consequences of elimination had been discussed at operational meeting in the Committee on Geopolitics of the State Duma, which was held on November 23, 1999 (S.V. Krichevsky, CEPR).
In 1999 Russian Aerospace Agency (Rosaviakosm) had elaborated a new version of Federal space program (FSP) for the period till 2005, which at present is coordinated in the Government of Russian Federation for further submitting for approval (the present FSP had been adopted as far back as in 1993 and its term of action expires in 2000). However, official information about obligatory environmental impact assessment of the new FSP and about positive decision in this respect is not available. (The available information indicates that there has been no environmental impact assessment of the new FSP at all).
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MAJOR PUBLICATIONS ON THE PROBLEM
I. Publications in the mass media containing critical comments of RSA
(1995 - beginning of 2000)
1. Golotyuk S. It is not difficult to litter on the orbit, clearing up is much more difficult // Segodnya. 1995. October 19.
2. Lupandin M. Rocket blow at Altai // Trud. 1996. July 23.
3. Lupandin M. Where rockets fall // Trud. 1996. November 13.
4. Lupandin M. Star poison // Trud. 1997. September 10.
5. Lupandin M. Rocket blow at own territory // Trud. 1997. September 30.
6. Lupandin M. "Satana" rules the ball there // Trud. 1997. December 25.
7. Lupandin M. Poisonous dew // Trud - 7. 1998. August 28 - September 3
8. Lupandin M. Dead zones of Russia // Trud - 7. 1998. October 9 - 15.
9. Shulgin V. Soldier's kasha with heptyle // Trud. 1999. October 20.
10. Lupandin M. The mystery of deadly "rains"//Trud. 1999. December 2.
11. Malakhova. Rebound from space: the surface of the Earth is being polluted with fragments of the launched rockets // Nezavisimoe Voennoye Obozreniye. Weekly supplement to "Nezavisimaya Gazeta". 1997. October 31 - November 13. ¹ 41. P.8.
12. Morozov I. Coming revenge from space // Literaturnaya Gazeta. 1997. July 30.
13. Morozova T. Trap for Altai // Pravda Rossii. 1997. December 11 - 17.
14. Guseva L. Rocket fuel should be utilized. But with safe technologies.// Zeleniy Mir// 1997. ¹ 27. P. 12.
15. Tracy L. US Space Junk Dumped in Siberia // Earth Island Journal. 1998.Spring. P. 25.
16. Cherkasova M.V. Social and Environmental Effects of Space Activity // Towards a Sustainable Russia. Bulletin of the Center for Russian Environmental Policy. 1998. September. ¹ 4 (8) PP. 27 -28.
17. Krichevsky S. Environmental Hazard from Space Activity // Ibid. P. 29-30.
18. Non-hospitable space // Poisk, 1999, ¹ 28, July 9, P.11.
19. Mikhailov V. It may be stated that the Humankind has not realized...// Zeleniy Mir// 1999. ¹ 16-17. PP. 30 -31.
20. Krichevsky S. Following the footsteps of "Proton"'s accident // Ecoreport - Review. Press-service of SEU. 1999, ¹ 4, P.7.
21. Heptyle gift for reserve // Ecoreport - Review. Press-service of SEU. 2000, ¹ 1, PP.2 -3.
22. Krichevsky S. Space station "Mir": To destroy impossible to save../ Where to put comma? // Tekhnika-Molodiozhi, 2000, ¹1, PP. 2-3.
23. Krichevsky S. Unique natural dump... of rockets // Parlamentskaya Gazeta, 2000, February 2, P.4.
Apart from this regular commentaries on this problem have been transmitted by electronic mass media, in particular in environmental program "Environment" (NTV).
Special attention should be paid to environmental TV film, devoted to environmental consequences of RSA in Altai territory, which won the first prize at the All-Russian competition of TV programs in Sochi (1997):
Trap. TV film. Producer - M.Yu. Shishin. Barnaul: TV company "Katun", 1997.
II. Russian and foreign scientific, educational and official publications containing critical comments of RSA (1991 - 1997)
1. Space and ecology: Collection of articles. Moscow: "Znanye" Publishers, 1991.
2. Vlasov M.N. Space and ecology // Priroda. 1992. ¹ 8(924) PP.3 -11.
3. The problem of pollution of outer space (space debris): Collection of scientific papers / Editor in chief A.G. Masevich. Moscow: Kosminform, 1993.
4. Collisions in circumterrestrial outer space: (space debris): Collection of scientific papers / Editor in chief A.G. Masevich. Moscow: Kosminform, 1995.
5. Mikhailov V.P. Ecology of outer space: Program of special course for environmental and technological education. Moscow: Institute of History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Science (IIET), 1995.
6. Vlasov M., Kutsenko V., Shabad A. Circumterrestrial space and ecology // Zeleniy Mir// 1995. ¹ 25.
7. On the problem of impact of space activity on environmental safety // Environmental security of Russia. Moscow: "Yuridicheskaya literatura" Publishers, 1994. Issue 1: Proceedings of Interagency commission on environmental security (October 1993 - July 1994). PP.197 - 216.
8. On the problem of probable connections of phenomenon of "yellow children" with impact of rocket fuel // Environmental security of Russia. Moscow: "Yuridicheskaya literatura" Publishers, 1994. Issue 2: Proceedings of Interagency commission on environmental security (September 1994 -October 1995). P.306.
9. Pollution of the environment in the course of operation and elimination of rocket systems // Ibid. PP. 316 - 318.
10. Impact of rocket and space technology on natural environment: State Report "On the State of the Natural Environment in Russian Federation in 1995" / Ministry of environmental protection and natural resources of Russian Federation // Zeleniy Mir // 1996. ¹ 26. PP.11 - 12.
11. Impact of rocket and space technology on natural environment: State Report "On the State of the Natural Environment in Russian Federation in 1996" / State Committee of Russian Federation on environmental protection // Zeleniy Mir // 1997. ¹ 25. PP.7 - 8.
12. Environmental aspects of elimination and utilization of rocket weapons // Ibid, P.8.
13. Environmental impact of rocket and space technology and civil aircraft: State Report "On the State of the Natural Environment in Russian Federation in 1997" / State Committee of Russian Federation on environmental protection // Zeleniy Mir// 1998. ¹ 25. P. 26.
14. Suimenbaev B.T., Maksin D.G., Kulikov S.A. Environmental safety of operation of rocket and space complexes. Educational textbook. Moscow: Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI) Publishing House, 1997.
15. Grossman K., The wrong stuff: The space program's nuclear threat to our planet. Monro (Me.) Common Courage press, 1997.
III. Latest scientific publications: reports, articles, resolutions
(1998 - 1999)
A. Publications by independent researchers:
1. "Environmental threat of contemporary space activity. Resolution of the 4th scientific conference "Altai - Space - Microspace" (Barnaul, Russia, June 26 - 27 1998) // Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, ¹ 15/16, PP. 62 -63.
2. Krichevski S.V. Contemporary problems of environmental safety of space activity // Theses of the 4th scientific conference "Altai - Space - Microspace". - Barnaul, 1998, PP. 118 - 126.
3. Lupandin V.P. Estimates of health risks for the population of the areas of rocket and space activity // Ibid, PP. 129 - 134.
4. Pal'tsin M.Yu. Distribution of numbers of some kinds of mammals on the territory of RP - 326 (Altai state reserve) // Ibid, PP. 134 - 144.
5. Matveev Yu. A, Pozin A.A. The problems of forecasting environmental risk in the course of space flights // XXXIII Scientific conference on development of scientific heritage of K.E. Tsiolkovsky (Kaluga, September 15 - 18, 1998): Theses of reports. Moscow: IIET RAS, 1998. P.143.
6. Krichevsky S.V. Space technology of the XXIst century: development through ecologization // Technological reality in the XXIst century. Proceedings of IVth Conference on philosophy of technology and technetics (Omsk, January 20 -22 1999), Issue 8. "Cenological research". Compiled and edited by B.I. Kudrin. - Moscow, Center for system research, 1999, PP.83 -95.
7. Krichevsky S. Environmental policy in the field of aerospace activity: history of the problem, present state, forecast // Theses of reports. XIIth International symposium on history of aviation and cosmonautics, June 1999 / Moscow: IIET RAS, 1999. PP. 92 - 94.
8. Krichevsky S.V. Space activity: results of the XXth century and strategy of ecologization // Obstchestvennie nauki i sovremennost' ("Nauka" Publishers, RAS), 1999, ¹ 6. PP.141 - 149.
9. Yarmishko V.T., Yarmishko M.A., Pimkin V.G. Reaction of plants to highly toxic components of fuel of liquid rocket engines // Ecology ("Nausea" Publishers, AS), 1999, ¹ 6, PP. 471 - 475.
Apart from this in 1999 two books had been published in Russia ( they are the world first monographs supplied with analytical and historic review of the problem):
1. Vlasov M.N., Krichevsky S.V. "Environmental threats of space activity: analytical review" - Moscow, "Nauka" Publishers, Center for Russian Environmental Policy, 1999.
2. Mikhailov V.P. Rocket and space pollution: history of the origins. Moscow: Institute of History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Science, RAS, 1999.
At present a chronological follow-up of the abovementioned book is being prepared for print: Mikhailov V.P. Rocket and space pollution: origins of the trends.
B. Agency publications
A number of agency and scientific publications, which appeared recently, are devoted to topical problems of environmental safety of RSA. The leading role here is played by high schools and universities. For example, four International congresses "Environment for the living and the future generations: ecology, business and environmental education" had been held in Samara State Technical University. During these congresses special sections on environmental problems of outer space had been organized. Similar publications are made every year following agency conferences of the Ministry of Defense and some other organizations related to RSA (as a rule such publications are classified).
1. Agapov I.V., Shatrov Ya.T. Selection of the launch trace of launcher rocket with account of the criterion of "acceptable risk" //"Environment for the living and the future generations: ecology, business and environmental education". Theses of the reports at the IIIrd International Congress, September 6 - 13 1998. Samara. Samara State Technical University. P. 137.
2. Shatrov Ya.T., Bolistov A.I. The present state and the prospects of ensuring environmental safety of RSA in Russia // Ibid, P. 147.
3. Zharov V.M., Chalov-Prilutsky V.A., Shatrov Ya.T. Analysis of the effects of the upper stages of means of delivery into space on the level of technogenic risks in circumterrestrial outer space // Ibid, P. 148.
4. Dudishev V.D. Effects of space activity on the origins and evolution of atmospheric anomaly phenomena // Ibid, P.149.
5. Dudishev V.D. Fuelless orbital cosmonautics as a radical alternative trend of development of environmentally safe cosmonautics of the 21st century // Ibid, PP. 150 - 151.
6. Zharov V.M., Shatrov Ya.T. Environmentally feasible characteristics of rocket and space hardware at the stage of operation //"Environment for the living and the future generations: ecology, business and environmental education". Theses of the reports at the IVth International Congress, September 5 - 12 1999. Samara. Samara State Technical University. PP.100 - 109.
7. Akimova T.G. On the problem of estimates of impacts of launches of launcher rockets from Baikonur cosmodrome on the climate of Republic of Kazakhstan // Ibid, PP. 114 - 116.
8. Smolyanov Yu.I., Akimova T.G. Proposals on organization of the service of environmental auditing of space projects // Ibid, PP.116 - 118.
9. Poluarshinov A.M., Akimova T.G. Environmental auditing of space projects on the basis of environmental monitoring // Ibid, PP. 180 - 182.
10. Kuzmin A. Ecological problems of space exploration // Aerospace Journal (Russia). 1995. November - December. PP. 50 - 51, 102 - 103.
A specific feature of the recent years consists in elaboration and implementation into rocket and space branch of economy of the projects designed for contributing to expansion the RSA, to its commercialization, to employment of the potentials of the RSA for solution of global problems of the Humankind in the framework of sustainable development. At the same time topical and priority (from the perspective of environmental safety) goals of rapid ecologization of RSA are disregarded, brought to the minimum or shifted to remote future perspective. Convincing examples of such approach are scientific publications:
1. Senkevich V.P. Forecasts of national and international space activity in the first half of the XXIth century // Exploration of aerospace: past, present, future. Selected works of the Xth International symposium on the history of aviation and cosmonautics, Moscow, June 20 - 27 1995 Moscow: IIET RAN, 1997. PP.175 - 185.
2. Koshelev V., Lioznov G., Rasnovsky A., Tsyba Y. Creative potential of nuclear missiles // Aerospace Journal (Russia). 1997. January- February. PP. 7-9, 82 - 84.
Latest agency contributions to mass media ( as different from scientific publications) are aimed primarily at neutralization of critical comments of environmental irrationality of RSA. For this purpose methods of straightforward and indirect misinformation as well as efforts to discredit the ecologists and the authors of independent investigations and publications are used. All these efforts serve an evident goal of ensuring favorable conditions for further continuation of RSA while ignoring, falling silent and underestimating environmental damage for the humans and the nature, of bringing RSA and appropriate agencies from under the fire of public criticism.
Convincing examples of such publications are:
1. Kliushnikov V.Yu., Shatrov Ya.T. On the problem of environmental threats of space activity (polemic notes) // "Environment for the living and the future generations: ecology, business and environmental education". Theses of the reports at the IVth International Congress, September 5 - 12 1999. Samara. Samara State Technical University. PP.109 - 111.
2. Mokhov V., Izvekov I., Pobedinskaya M. "Proton" accident // Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1999, ¹ 9, PP. 26 - 31.
3. Izvekov I. On accident of "Zenith" // Ibid, P. 37.
4. Kliushnikov V. Environmental problems of "Rockot" // Novosti kosmonavtiki, 2000, ¹ 1, PP. 49 - 51.
5. Kovalenko G., Sergeev S. Somebody looses and somebody gains: Russia lost over two billion dollars as a result of " battle for the environment" with rocket specialists // Parlamentskaya Gazeta, 2000, February 2, P. 4.
Translated by prof. G.S. Khozin, June 8, 2000.
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